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Also, do we need to account for changes in timezones that might have happened since that point in time? Instead of a numeric offset, use a string.

Makers at Work: Folks Reinventing the World One Object or Idea at a Time by Steven Osborn

These are standardized descriptors of the timezones used in the world, and you can use these in pretty much every programming language ever used in the last few decades. Regardless of timing, my comments were perfectly relevant and explored the issue perfectly. The number one way to address that number one rule: ISO And yes, you should definitely have a favorite. My all-time fave is RFC , thanks for asking! Where would we be without that banger? It was re-upped in , , and is anticipating a new draft by the end of this year.

It basically defines THE way of writing a timestamp. So yeah, use ISO over the wire.

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RFC came out in It lets you get away with less. British press corp is locked outside the White House because our birthdates were submitted in UK format and secret service don't get it. Like under no circumstances does this make any sense. People like their locale-based date formatting, and you should try to respect that as much as you can. One of the ways you can do this on the web is using the Intl API. Intl supports a number of different hooks and abilities to handle locale- and language-based changes for numbers, plurals, and dates and times. Stand on the shoulders of giants, and steal from someone else.

Just how Open Source was intended. Keeps everything fresh. Or does it mean 23 months ago, which is wayyyy different from five months ago? A few things you can use here. I think we started adding that way back in or so, something like that. Always made it really easy to find out when specifically some event happened: you just mouseover the element. So you print things relatively like usual:. Then you add a human-friendly string to the title attribute:. This is a way to get past all your fancy relative formatting, or human formatting, and let clients parse out the actual timestamp correctly.

If you ever print out a relative date or time to a page, you should follow this format everywhere. This probably why there are so many of them: everyone says the same thing and tries to reinvent the wheel, thus perpetuating the cycle. Part of this stems from there not being a real, viable browser option.

And that sort of worked. It… you know, works. So yeah, everything is terrible. Her answer was an immediate oh god probably never. The web is great! Just make peace with it. If someone held a gun to your head and demanded in the next week you either 1 programmed a comprehensive system that included full support for recurring events, or 2 invent full-scale ready-to-go-to-market cold fusion, then you should abolutely start brushing up on atomic physics. Recurring events is a true shit show. It starts normally enough, of course. You have an innocent phrase that you want to apply to your system, like:.

So you start modeling it in your database. And then you save another row for the Tuesday after that. And then another row for the Tuesday after that. And after that. You do this for 70 occurrences before you start realizing, hey, I think this goes to infinity. I figured it out by the 52nd occurrence. Maybe you can just create a shorthand of rules that defines when things happen. Martin Fowler has a really great whitepaper on recurring events.

Definitely check it out if you get really excited about reading whitepapers. Fowler called these shorthands temporal expressions. And luckily, we have a standardized way of thinking about this, too, in RFC This might seem simple enough. And for very simple cases, yeah, it might not be too bad. My advice for all of this is to go as simple and as inefficient as you can, at least initially. The more complex your time logic is, the more it picks up steam, like a snowball rolling down a cliff. Every little bit adds up and compounds. So try going simple at first, if you can.

Instead of modeling a RRULE for a weekly reoccurrence, maybe you can just pre-generate all of the events ahead of time, but just for a year. Then on January 1, regenerate a new set of events in your database. It can sometimes make you feel week in the knees, and very days and confused about how it all fits together. But watch it: this is hour burden to bear, and we can't just let it past us over. We've been working on building During for awhile now, and most of the time I've been tryna keep my sanity, but every now and then I take a step back and say wait a minute, how does any of this work?

Makers at Work : Folks Reinventing the World One Object or Idea at a Time -

How does society work? Do users actually need all-day, floating, recurring events with exceptions spread over multiple Daylight Saving Time boundaries? Or should I just go tell users to eat one and go live a simpler life in the woods? Anyway, what I mean is that I've been in time-headspace for awhile now. Here's a few last thoughts:. Keep everything simple as much as possible. Even if it means being really inefficient, or redundant, or ugly.

Everything adds up, and I think usually programmers overthink time. Leave overthinking for the times where it's actually critical to overthink. Handle more in the client. This is a little bit of an odd piece of advice, but especially when you have a central service GraphQL, REST API, some central interface, particularly when hooked up with a single page app, mobile clients, or other clients , I think it's more important to have as simple a central service as possible.

This means it should basically only speak UTC, and might not even handle a lot of the more complicated logic around recurring events, timezones, and so on. It adds redundancy in your clients, but I think it makes it easier to understand overall. Leverage standards and let others do the heavy lifting.

Obviously that means using the Brightest Point in Human History , also known as ISO , but it also means using premade time libraries, resources like the Olson database, and leveraging other people's existing work as much as possible. Let someone else figure out the really gnarly edge cases so you can work on your domain's edge cases. And finally, now that I've suckered you into caring this much about time, you might want to keep on reading.

Here's some interesting links if all this text wasn't enough for you:. Other women folk singer-songwriters such as Joan Baez or Buffy Sainte-Marie would contest patriarchal power structures through protest strategies that landed them prison sentences or would put them on FBI watch lists for decades.

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Odetta, on the contrary, shared an amicable relationship with government officials throughout her career, and rather than experiencing policing of any kind, was sometimes courted by political elites to perform at events that would positively depict them. Odetta sometimes merged this commitment to respectability with her performance image. Hailing from a black cultural context which did not have access to the same kind of economic privilege that these young whites knew, and as such, held no romanticized notions of marginality, Odetta did not worry about whether her music derived meaning from deprivation.

In this context, she sought to educate her fans and listeners as she performed her own approach to blackness as her songs, which often drew from the Mississippi Delta Region of the American South. In so doing, she encouraged her audiences to imaginatively and emotionally connect with the history and memory of the black experience there. Such identification would, Odetta hoped, drive her listeners to seek social reform in their present-day affairs, particularly concerning racial issues.

The politics of respectability had been losing traction among black communities who no longer strove for economic, cultural, or intellectual achievement to present themselves as mirroring their respectable white counterparts in the earlier part of the twentieth century. A s Odetta entered the s, her career embarked on a series of new endeavors which took her from the concert stage to the realm of acting in theater productions and in television broadcast series.

Around this time, she mentioned to an interviewer that she no longer wanted to be pigeonholed as a folk performer given the versatility of her career. As a long-time singer of folk tunes that conveyed experiences that were not always her own, Odetta was accustomed to the performative mimicry that was essential to good acting. The major difference between her acting and singing careers was that in acting, Odetta would rely on strategically constructed visual scenery, rather than an imaginative use of sound, to advance the work she had been pursuing her entire life: portraying African American experiences drawn from the past to comment on events in the present.

Two films in particular, Sanctuary and The Autobiography of Jane Pittman , depicted black experience in a way that maintained racial and gendered hierarchies rather than dismantled them. Odetta began acting in films around the same time that she launched her musical career. She accepted her first mid-sized role in the film Sanctuary , released by Twentieth Century Fox. As Nancy, she valued the moral outcome of the unmanageable white woman under her care above her own life.

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Ultimately, Odetta played a female heroine, but one who morally triumphed by valuing moral certitude for a white woman over her own life as a black woman. Although she is killed in the battle, Big Laura fights back when a gang of white men attack her northward bound band of former slaves.

Nevertheless, it appears that her foray into films, while she chose movies that tended to depict her characters as heroines, limited these characters to roles with which mainstream white audiences would be comfortable. No evidence suggests that Odetta was particularly ruffled by these realities, affirming her unwillingness to engage in dissident behavior even as she advocated for racial equality throughout her life. In the mids, Odetta was offered to play the role of Bessie Smith in an upcoming film about the life of the self-confident blues singer whose love of alcohol and earthy, unadorned songs about black oppression comprised a well-known part of her artistic personality.

Unlike the operas she performed in as a younger person, Odetta did not find this particular opera to be remote from social realities that she cared about. Odetta had long enjoyed international acclaim alongside of her performances in the U. Nevertheless, in , an opportunity arose for her to visit several Soviet countries. Cold War cultural ambassadors to the Soviet Union under previous presidential administrations, including Kennedy and Johnson, had to contend with agencies, particularly the U.

The Embassy succeeded, but the lengths they went to in order to make the month-long tour financially expedient for Odetta suggests how earnestly they wanted her to perform. Embassy letters declared that she would be the first ever folksinger to tour the Soviet Union, and they greatly anticipated the exposure she would bring her listeners to American folk culture. She was against the war in Vietnam, but her overall commitment to non-dissident behaviors, and her abundant cooperation with U.

Worry about the culture of the minister. Odetta could at times comply at length with the programs of formal power structures. Her transgressiveness as a racial and gendered subject did not equate to the same kind of political dissidence that fellow folksingers would adopt. Music is the healing stuff. She did not fit comfortably into middle-class American norms as a woman who independently supported herself by way of her creative output, and nor did she readily conform to the indignities of racial inequality.

In the same vein, Odetta also flouted the conventions of the American folk music revival, refusing to exchange one unequal society for another. Rather than sing mild-mannered folk songs and refrain from competing with male peers, Odetta independently worked her way into the most renowned folk clubs around the country, launching her career in , before critics came to be a revival of interest in American folk song had emerged in any meaningful way.

Odetta gendered her production of folk music in ways that leaders of the folk revival could not always comprehend, at once masculinizing folk and feminizing the blues. As a performer of hundreds of benefits concerts for the cause of civil rights, Odetta nonetheless refused to embrace Dr. She found the message of black liberationism more appealing, believing that emancipation must come from within, at a place of complete self-acceptance for who one is without seeking to conform to outside standards.

Freeing herself from inner turmoil she faced as a young person, she sought to bring this possibility of emancipation to others. In addition, her films were limited by the modest nature of Hollywood and television producers. Nevertheless, as an actress and singer, Odetta introduced her audiences to sounds that facilitated empathy with a gendered black experience in American life, one whose complexities few represented well. Accounts of the folk revival typically date it between and , when folk music enjoyed substantial commercial success and before it was replaced with competing musical genres, including folk rock, rock and roll, and the British invasion.

For narratives of the revival which follow this timeline, see Robert S. Contributors consider the epistemologies, market forces, personal training, and major historical events that formed these genres and their particular interpretations by a variety of black women performers working in the mid to late twentieth century. Eileen M.

Makers at Work: Folks Reinventing the World One Object or Idea at a Time

Hayes and Linda F. Williams, eds. OP, Box 8. Nevertheless, music reviewers, including John S. John S. On the mid-twentieth century American folk music revival, see Ronald D. Eagle and Eric S. Odetta biographical information, OP, Box 1. Cohen, ed. Norman J. Leroy F.

In a public contest, Henry outpaces the mechanical steam drill as he harnesses his superior strength to fasten the track, but dies soon after from the arduous demands of the task. John Henry, an African-American man, was celebrated in interracial labor circles for the symbolic value the ballad placed on human skill and strength, although his tenuous position as a poor worker subject to the changing technologies and the whims of his boss remind listeners of his relative lack of power given the condition of race and labor conditions that existed during his lifetime.

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