Isaka, T. Food Ind. Shokuhin Kogyo, Jpn. Jurin, V. Food Technol. Joyce, D. HortScience , 23 , Kader, A. Weichmann ed. CRC Crit. Katzyoshi, T. In: Handbook of Food Preservation. Umeda, K. Yasmoto, K. Utagawa, T. Yokoyama and T. Yamaguchi eds , Creative, Tokyo, — Labuza, T.
Food Proc. Lebermann, K. Respiration of shoots and color of flower head. Lee, D. Packaging Technology and Science , 5 , 27— Lee, J. Gray, B. Harte and J. Mannapperuma, J. Mizutani, Y. Meyers, R. Ohta, H. Powrie, W. Ooraikul and M. Stiles eds , Ellis Horwood, New York. Prince, T. Brody ed. Robertson, G.
Shelekhin, A. Permeation of gases in microporous glass membranes. Membrane Sci. Singh, R. Solomos, T. Wiley ed. Song, Y. A positive impact of desiccant usage was observed, namely a decrease in the moisture condensation inside the packaging, and improved transparency of the packaging film. However, for packages with higher levels of desiccants 10 or 15 g , browning indices were greater due to the browning and excessive moisture loss. The appearance of mushrooms packed with 5 g desiccants was also better since higher amounts resulted in excessive moisture loss. After 5 d, the mushrooms packed with 5 g of desiccants were still sellable on the market.
Similar experiments were performed by Azevedo and others However, no food application was evaluated in this study. The application of poly acrylic acid sodium salt therefore shows potential for grain drying in reducing aflatoxin contamination, particularly in developing countries as it is a cheap and reusable solution.
Thereby, the active layer was foamed and stretched to form cavities around the salt particles.
In the presence of tomatoes or strawberries, the humidity produced by these products was efficiently absorbed by the trays and no condensation effect was observed. However, in this study, no other quality parameters of the strawberries and tomatoes were evaluated. Similar weight loss has been observed in the study of Rux and others They reported a water loss of With the absorption of drip, however, the absorption capacity was reduced to 20 times the initial weight.
As described in this section, various moisture scavenging systems can be applied to preserve quality and prolong the shelf life of food. Ethylene also accelerates chlorophyll degradation rates, especially in leafy products, and enhances excessive softening of fruits Saltveit ; Ozdemir and Floros Ethylene scavenger systems involve either inclusion of a small sachet containing an appropriate scavenger in the packaging or incorporation of an ethylene absorber in the film structure.
The sachet material should be highly permeable to ethylene, allowing diffusion through it. These minerals could be incorporated into a plastic film structure commonly used in fresh produce packaging De Kruijf and others Such minerals are intended to scavenge ethylene and also modify the gas permeability of the film so that carbon dioxide can diffuse faster and oxygen can enter more readily than through pure polyethylene to obtain an equilibrium atmosphere De Kruijf and others ; Esturk and others Metals and metal oxides are also good candidates for ethylene removal.
Photoactive TiO 2 is reported to oxidize ethylene into water and carbon dioxide. Since metal oxides are activated by either UV light, visible light or both, the negative effect of UV exposure on food quality should be considered. An ethylene concentration of 0. In this study, 10 g paper packets containing ethylene absorbent were placed in metal trays with a glass cover, however, it was acknowledged that this type of high barrier packaging is not suitable for products that respire. The active material adsorbed 0. The ethylene adsorption capacity per surface area was calculated as There has also been a further study on cardboard coated with polylactic acid and ethylene scavengers clinoptilolite, sepiolite, and sepiolite permanganate designed as an active packaging for fresh fruits and vegetables.
Ethylene scavengers could either be embedded into a solid, dispersed in plastic, or incorporated into various layers of the packaging Ozdemir and Floros However, there has been only limited research into the application of ethylene absorbers in the structure of packaging films. The main focus of the following section is the application of ethylene scavengers incorporated into the actual packaging material, rather than in sachet format, for fresh produce.
Ethylene scavenger can prolong the shelf life of climacteric fruits, such as apples, kiwifruit, apricot, bananas, mango, cucumber, tomato, avocados, and vegetables, such as carrots, potatoes, and asparagus De Kruijf and others The list of different produce packaged with different packaging film and ethylene absorber and the benefits of such systems are presented in Table 4. Results showed that active PE with nanopowders maintained physicochemical and physiological quality and sensory attributes of strawberry better than the control PE.
Active packaging decreased the rate of fruit decay to However, the gas composition including ethylene in the headspace was not monitored in this study and there is no indication of shelf life. The respiration rate and ethylene production of the combined treatment of hot air and active packaging were This study suggested that the combined treatment was more effective in maintaining the quality of Chinese bayberries than heat treatment or nanopackaging alone.
The active packaging improved the physicochemical and sensory quality of the product compared to polyethylene without nanopowder control. Application of active packaging significantly reduced fruit softening, weight loss, browning, and climactic evolution during 12 d of storage. An important index of rate of browning of the product was reduced from 0. The ethylene production rate increased initially and then declined for all treatments. The maximum ethylene content was reported as The active packaging is recommended for Chinese jujube to improve quality, however, a specific shelf life was not indicated.
Ethylene concentrations in the headspace were The researchers stated that nanocomposite packaging was effective in inhibiting ethylene production A lower level of ethylene production was related to the synergistic effect of nanoparticles which decompose or oxidize ethylene into water and carbon dioxide Li and others The browning index was significantly reduced from The activity of polyphenol oxidase was 9.
The authors reported that the nanopackages had more oxygen and less carbon dioxide in the headspace compared to the control, indicating the lower respiration in the nanocoated PVC. The product control was unacceptable for the sensory panel after 5 d. However, the quality loss was significantly reduced in active LDPE bags with an ethylene absorber. Ethylene concentration was The ethylene measurements for each treatment and the shelf life were not published in this publication.
The film with ethylene absorber reduced weight loss, maintained firmness, and there was no sign of decay during storage. Ethylene production in the microperforated packages was higher than that in the nonperforated and nonperforated with ethylene absorber packaging. Ethylene measurement is not reported in this study Ayhan LDPE film impregnated with a natural hydroscopic mineral resulted in a lower loss in weight, better color and texture, while the chlorophyll content was maintained.
This publication does not report any ethylene measurements. P Eilot, Israel. The use of permanganate as active agent in contact with food is not permitted in Europe Pereira de Abreu and others The use of these materials for a broad spectrum of fresh products is also limited compared with other active packaging applications reported in the literature.
Synthetic antioxidants, such as butylated hydroxytoluene BHT and butylated hydroxyanisole BHA have been widely used in food packaging to prevent lipid oxidation. Some recent developments in this field have been summarized in Table 5. Similarly, sealable LDPE films containing 1. Active antioxidant food packaging films produced by incorporating 4. Fried peanuts stored in sealed bags manufactured with active films containing 0. Additionally, the peroxide index was used to monitor the effect of the films on the oxidation of sunflower oil over 5 mo. On exposing sunflower oil to the films, the peroxide values demonstrated that the films actively protected the oil.
Moreover, the films with quercetin 0. However, the antioxidant performance under real storage conditions needs to be evaluated before commercial implementation. Another issue to be addressed would be the inclusion of EVOH in a multilayer system in order to protect the system from water and to reduce costs, while maintaining antioxidant activity. Antioxidant packaging systems containing volatile extracts, EOs, or active components of plants or spices have been developed to improve quality and to extend the shelf life of various food products.
Antioxidant films obtained from biomaterials containing green tea extract have been demonstrated to improve oxidative stability of pork meat products Siripatrawan and Noipha ; Yang and others Yang and others reported a stronger antioxidant capacity of films obtained with 0. It is important to highlight the industrial relevance of this study, since the use of commercial packaging materials would facilitate industrial implementation of this technology.
Other authors have explored the application of packaging materials containing rosemary and oregano extracts in direct contact with muscle foods as active packaging systems. Oregano extracts included in the films were more efficient in preventing oxidation of lamb meat than rosemary extracts, they extended fresh odor and color from 8 to 13 d compared to the control Camo and others Barley husk, another waste product obtained from the brewery industry, also proved to be effective in slowing down lipid hydrolysis and improving the oxidative stability in blue shark muscle Pereira de Abreu and others Meanwhile, anthocyanins from wine grape pomace, beet root residue powder, and mango and acerola pulp incorporated into sealable biodegradable films had a protective effect on sunflower and palm oil oxidation Souza and others ; Oliveira and others ; Stoll and others For example, a sunflower oil control sample directly exposed to the air and light reached a peroxide index of Similarly, a lower peroxide index, which was significantly different from that of the control oil with no packaging , was detected in palm oil packed in cassava starch films with high concentrations of mango and acerola pulp additives Souza and others Extensive research on the use of antioxidant packaging systems to prevent food oxidation has been conducted.
However, most of the reported studies fail to validate the efficiency of the antioxidant packaging systems in real commercial food applications and do not consider their target market and consequent legal status. Therefore, to favor the industrial implementation of this technology, it is essential to study real food packaging systems. CO 2 is soluble in the aqueous and fatty phases of food products and the antimicrobial effect is highly dependent on the rate of solubility and amount of CO 2 dissolved in the food product.
The solubility of carbon dioxide increases with decreasing temperature Devlieghere and others ; Devlieghere and Debevere and also varies for different food products depending on the properties of the food such as surface area, pH and composition water, fat, protein Chaix and others The antimicrobial effect has been found to be proportional to the partial pressure of the gas Blickstad and others In terms of food packaging, this implies that the total amount of CO 2 present in the headspace of the package is crucial for the effect. The release of carbon dioxide from a tuned emitter system may also prevent packaging deformation as it compensates for CO 2 absorption into the food product in the initial stages of storage.
The emitters usually come in the form of a pad or sachet, in many cases as a combined liquid absorber. The active ingredients inside the absorbent pad react when the pad absorbs liquid that is seeping out of the product, resulting in the release of CO 2. Over the last decade, the field of CO 2 emitters has advanced significantly, reflected in increased research activity and sale of commercial CO 2 emitters.
Table 6 lists the CO 2 releaser technologies available for food preservation to date, as well as their applications and benefits to specific food products.
In the literature, there are several reports of the use of ferrous carbonate in carbon dioxide emitters Rooney ; Sivertsvik ; Restuccia and others However, documentation and descriptions of the technology principle, benefits, and food applications are scarce. These systems are based on either ferrous carbonate or a mixture of ascorbic acid and sodium bicarbonate Coma Amongst the first reports in the literature of such applications is a study from Bjerkeng and others Distinct differences in TVC were measured for the different packaging methods; after 15 d of storage the cod fillets in vacuum had a TCV of log 7.
The measured TVC levels for the salmon packaged in MAP with and without emitter were comparable and the obtained shelf life for the 2 packaging methods was the same. In a study by Pettersen and others , the effect of different packaging methods was evaluated for fresh reindeer meat. The effect was assumed to be due to a reduction in packaging collapse and physical squeeze on the fillet.
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Trindade and others evaluated the use of a combined OS and carbon dioxide emitter sachet Didai, technology unknown for active packaging of lamb cuts. Inoculation of L. Furthermore, interpretation of the results for this study is complicated by the lack of documented sampling data bacterial counts during the storage time. The 2 latter studies are not included in Table 6 as the underlying technologies active substances of the emitters have not been published.
Comparisons of different CO 2 emitter concepts are challenging. Another important factor concerning the evaluation of CO 2 emitter that is rarely documented is the material and density of the emitter substrate. The type and structure of the substrate in which the active ingredients are incorporated is of importance for liquid absorption and the amount and rate of CO 2 release. In addition, the active ingredients may be evenly distributed in pores of the substrate material or in a bulk deposit in the core of the substrate.
These aspects should be taken into consideration when comparing the performance of different emitter systems. The results of earlier scientific studies, as summarized in the previous paragraphs, have shown that an optimal effect of CO 2 emitters can only be achieved when the emitter capacity is optimized, that is adapted to the physiological properties and weight of the food product in question.
An emitter with an optimal capacity will ensure an adequate CO 2 level, counteract formation of negative pressure within the package, ensure sufficient liquid absorption, and extend shelf life. With regard to commercialization, there are different emitters already on the market today. Antimicrobial food packaging presents a system designed to inhibit the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Furthermore, antimicrobial nanoparticles are reviewed separately as the nanosize itself either increases or enables the antimicrobial activity Table EOs are secondary metabolites and play an important role in plant defense, thus, some of them possess strong antimicrobial properties.
Many scientific publications are connected to the potential interest in this type of active packaging but without any real application to food. Compared to the results obtained in culture media, E. However, the synergistic antimicrobial effect of different EOs on food has been less frequently studied. A synergistic antimicrobial effect was observed with Botrytis cinerea , when the films were applied through indirect contact with strawberries. The half maximal inhibitory concentration IC50 of the EOs in the film was reduced from The authors showed that They reported that T.
The authors reported that yeast populations were affected by the presence of thyme EO and the yeast counts decreased as a function of the EO dose in the film, especially during the first 21 d of storage. The shelf life was longer for samples wrapped with material incorporating BEOs 10 to 12 d compared to the control 6 d. Allium spp. With the latter, Lee and others demonstrated that crab sticks packed with starfish gelatin films containing 0. However, such packaging have not yet been extensively commercialized. Another option could be the development of tasteless, colorless, and odorless EO derivatives sensory inertness , such as some curcumin derivatives Coma and others ; Etxabide and others According to the recent scientific publication by Dornic and others , although EOs contain compounds naturally produced in the natural environment by higher plants, their consumption may nevertheless present a risk to health, given their composition.
Indeed, their consumption may cause adverse effects when used inappropriately. The recent study of Rivaroli and others showed that higher doses of 3. Consequently, further research is needed to understand the potential toxicity of EOs incorporated into packaging materials. Incorporation of proteins, particularly enzymes and bacteriocins, into food packaging to control spoilage caused by food pathogenic microorganisms has been an area of research for several decades Table 8.
Enzymes can serve as effective antimicrobials in food packaging by being chemically bonded to, or physically entrapped in, packaging films. Barbiroli and others reported incorporation of lysozyme and lactoferrin into paper containing carboxymethyl cellulose, which allowed noncovalent binding of the positively charged proteins to the paper matrix. Tests on thin meat slices laid on paper sheets containing either or both antimicrobial proteins indicated that lysozyme was most effective in preventing growth of aerobic bacteria in the meat sample, giving almost 1 log cycle reduction with respect to the control.
Lysozyme is accepted by the U. The films also reduced the counts of E. In other studies, nisin, in combination with enterocins, sakacin, and potassium lactate, was incorporated into interleaves and tested on cooked ham and bacterial growth of L. Further research effort is still needed to evaluate the release of enzymes and bacteriocins from various films and coatings into packaging, as well as diffusion to the surface of the food. Moreover, the impact of the packaging on sensory properties of food should be thoroughly assessed.
To date, only nisin and natamycin have been approved for use as food additives in various countries including the United States and the EU. Therefore, legislative issues regarding the use of bacteriocins as food preservatives remain the main limitation in their commercial exploitation. Nevertheless, the use of enzymes and bacteriocins in combination with other preservation techniques can produce synergistic effects in food packaging while maintaining the safety and quality of minimally processed and fresh food products.
However, only a few studies have reported on polylysine incorporation into packaging materials. Chitosan, along with its derivative products such as chitooligosaccharides , presents antimicrobial and antifungal activity against a wide range of target microorganisms, and it has also been proven to be beneficial to food packaging. Total bacterial counts significantly decreased during storage especially for samples that were coated with preservative films.
Furthermore, the coliform, mold and yeast organisms in soft cheese were inhibited by the active films. Similarly, the same films inhibited the growth of L. However, the authors indicated that sensory studies are needed before this technology is further developed Ye and others a. Both combinations reduced S. The films also reduced the growth of L.
For S. Moreover, samples packed in active bags had lower TBARS values than those of samples in control bags. The exploitation of GRAS antimicrobials nisin and potassium sorbate in food packaging is straightforward, whereas the use of silver zeolite as a surface biocide is debatable. Although it is approved by the US FDA as a food contact substance, in the EU it is not included in the list of authorized substances, but is in the provisional list for use in accordance with national law.
In another study, chitosan films were developed by incorporating lauric arginate ester LAE and their antimicrobial activity against mesophiles, psychrophiles, Pseudomonas spp. Chitosan films demonstrated antimicrobial activity in the range of 0. FDA FDA , , for agricultural and medicinal purposes, but it is not yet specifically approved as an antimicrobial food additive. Meanwhile, the other antimicrobial polymer mentioned above, polylysine, was granted GRAS status by the U. Along with excellent antimicrobial properties, packaging coatings and films prepared from such biopolymers exhibit a variety of other advantages, such as biodegradability, edibility, nontoxicity, biocompatibility, an aesthetic appearance, and good barrier properties.
However, further studies are needed to fully evaluate industrial feasibility and the commercial viability of implementation of the proposed technologies.
Intelligent Packaging: Concepts and Applications
Furthermore, there is a need to evaluate the packaging effects on the sensory properties of food as well as to validate already developed packaging by using commercial food products held under real storage conditions. Some organic compounds such as selected organic acids and their derivatives, exhibit antimicrobial activity Table 10 and can be incorporated into packaging films.
The results identified the potential of active films containing citric acid to extend the shelf life of minced beef. However, further research needs to be conducted to improve the limited antimicrobial effect demonstrated in this study. The authors reported a positive antimicrobial effect against psychrotrophs with a reduction level of 0. Although the results obtained do not demonstrate a significant antimicrobial effect at the end of the shelf life 11 d , improved sensory properties external odor, gill appearance, and odor were reported for megrim packed with active films, while control samples were considered unacceptable from a sensorial point of view.
Limjaroen and others incorporated sorbic acid into solvent cast poly vinylidene chloride PVDC films. Beef bologna and cheddar cheese, inoculated with L. In the inoculated cheddar cheese samples, the active films did neither significantly affected the growth of the inoculated L. Moreover, mesophilic aerobic bacteria and LAB counts in the beef packages with the active films were found to be around 4 and 6 log lower than in control samples with initial L. This trial should be repeated using melt extrusion , however, the high temperature may influence the sorbic acid activity. After 30 d of storage, Escherichia coli initial count 1.
In chicken steaks packed with the active films, E. Similar results were observed for yeast and molds. Additionally, after 5 wk of storage an identification of the bacteria species in the applied samples was performed. With the exception of the trout kept in potassium sorbate brine, Serratia liquefaciens , which is considered as one of the main pathogens and spoilage bacteria in smoked fish, was the dominating species. This indicates that potassium sorbate was effective against this pathogen as it was not present in the corresponding samples.
Several fruits and vegetables are highly susceptible to enzymatic changes, and the application of some antimicrobials can provide additional properties against this problem. Foralosso and others tested PVC films that contained a 0.
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The packaging also led to a decrease in the growth of E. A high antibacterial activity is reported for allyl isothiocyanate AITC against a wide range of bacteria Kim and others The latter applications maintained the P. No sensory analysis of catfish fillets was performed at the end of storage. However, due to the pungency and strong smell of AITC, a sensory analysis of the final product should be performed to assure the acceptability of the product.
In the context of odor, Kim and others recommend the application of AITC in vapor phase and low concentration 0. In , the EFSA panel on food additives and nutrient sources added to food ANS gave its scientific opinion on the safety of allyl isothiocyanate for the proposed uses as a food additive. The main hurdle to commercialization of active packaging solutions containing organic compounds are regulatory requirements.
Antimicrobial nanomaterials represent an increasingly important component of some active packaging for food applications Ayhan Antimicrobial nanoparticles particles between 1 and nm in size are incorporated into a polymer matrix with the aim of prolonging the shelf life of packaged food. The preparation of food packaging materials depends on the nature of the nanoparticle, its size, and its specific surface area. Despite the large number of studies reported in the literature in this area, there are only a few studies incorporating real food systems. Commonly used or tested antimicrobial nanoparticles are metal ions silver, copper, gold, platinum , metal oxide titanium dioxide, zinc oxide, magnesium oxide , and organically modified nanoclays.
From ancient times, silver Ag has been used as an antimicrobial agent. The most recent studies illustrate that addition of Ag nanoparticles into different polymer matrices, in combination with other additives or nanoparticles, can significantly prolong the shelf life of different foodstuffs.
The shelf life of bread was extended by reducing the degradation rate of the main nutritional compounds compared to the bread stored in an open atmosphere or in a commonly used plastic packaging. This system was very effective in prolonging the shelf life of orange juice up to 28 d.
ZnO has also been used as an antimicrobial agent added to active packaging films for packaging fresh poultry meat by Akbar and Anal , and they showed a reduction of the initial bacterial counts S. After 6 d there were no viable cells of S. Titanium dioxide TiO 2 has been studied as antimicrobial nanoparticles in LDPE for the packaging of fresh pears, and a decrease in mesophilic bacteria from 3. Furthermore, yeasts decreased from 2. A delay in microbial proliferation was recorded when the active films were used Conte and others As reported in the previous sections, the use of antimicrobial nanoparticles has great potential in preserving the microbial quality of the food systems.
In this context, the appropriate antimicrobial agent needs to be selected according to the targeted food. Additionally, the impact of nanoparticles on the properties of the packaging films, such as barrier properties and transparency, should also be considered. However, the safety evaluation and approval for use of such nanoparticles in food packaging remains the greatest challenge due to the difficulties in the evaluation of the safety of nanoparticles in general Radusin and others as well as constraints associated with the current legislative landscape Amenta and others ; Radusin and others ; Rauscher and others Over the last decade, various studies have been conducted in this area and several scientific reviews have been published.
There has been little research involving real food packaging systems. Such research, however, is of great importance, since the antimicrobial activity of the active agents with culture media does not necessarily correlate with the antimicrobial activity in the food. This is mainly due to the complex structure of the food as well as the differences in the antimicrobial activity test conditions. Before an antimicrobial food packaging can be successfully developed, a number of factors have to be considered. Firstly, the food system has to be fully understood in terms of its components, and physical and chemical characteristics, such as pH, and water activity, as well as its microbiological aspects, including identification of those microorganisms that are desirable and undesirable.
A suitable antimicrobial active agent should be selected with respect to all these characteristics. In particular, the antimicrobial spectrum and the efficiency of the agent should target the microorganisms that limit the shelf life of the particular food. In this context, the maximum permitted level of microorganisms in a food is very specific and depends on several factors, such as the type of microorganisms spoilage or pathogenic , the type of food and the regulations in force in the country where the product will be marketed.
For some food systems, such as several bakery products, no visual mold growth should be observed, whereas for others, the number of microorganisms should not exceed a certain number. Additionally, the influence of the food on the efficiency of the antimicrobial agent should be considered since the agent may be entrapped or deactivated by the food component, or the activity of the agent may be affected by a low or high pH.
A third factor involves selection of antimicrobial agents that do not cause any undesired changes in the food, such as the sensory properties. The last aspect to consider is that the addition of antimicrobial agents should not result in undesirable changes in the packaging material, such as barrier, sealing and adhesion properties, transparency, or glossiness, and it should not cause any increase in the migration of substances from the packaging material to the food.
Extensive research on the development of new active packaging technologies has been conducted over recent years generating a wide variety of active packaging systems that may be applied to extend the shelf life of food products. This review highlights the huge potential of active packaging systems and concludes that challenges in the implementation of new technologies to real food applications are similar across all the active packaging technology categories discussed.
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Scale up and industrialization of the active packaging technologies could be challenging and therefore should be taken into consideration at early development state for successful commercialization. The cost of the implementation of the technology has to correspond with the benefit gained by the particular food product, legislative and regulatory issues must be addressed, and broad consumer acceptance is required.
A successful collaboration between research institutes and industry, including development, legislative and commercial functions, is required to overcome these challenges. However, the recent advances discussed in this review can provide food and packaging scientists with a better understanding of the potential and the benefits of active packaging technologies and, hence, assist in accelerating their commercial adoption.
Selcuk Yildirim: Corresponding author. Development of concept of manuscript, organization of topics and distribution of subchapters, interim and final revision, Abstract, Introduction, Conclusion, Oxygen scavengers. Zehra Ayhan: Ethylene absorbers. Ramune Rutkaite: Antioxidant releasers; Antimicrobial packaging systems enzymes and bacteriocins, polymers. Tanja Radusin: Antimicrobial packaging systems nanoparticles. Patrycja Suminska: Moisture scavengers; Antimicrobial packaging systems organic acids, their derivatives and other organic compounds. Begonya Marcos: Antioxidant releasers, Moisture scavengers, Antimicrobial packaging systems organic acids, their derivatives and other organic compounds.
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Tools Request permission Export citation Add to favorites Track citation. Share Give access Share full text access. Share full text access. Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. Abstract The traditional role of food packaging is continuing to evolve in response to changing market needs. Introduction Packaging plays critical role in the food supply chain. After 16 wk. Photosensitive dyes Maloba and others used a photosensitive OS film to improve oxidative stability of sunflower oil. Moisture Scavengers Moisture content and water activity are critical factors affecting the quality and safety of various types of foods Labuza and Hyman Zeolites Zeolites have a significant tendency to attract moisture and can also release the absorbed water without any change in the crystalline structure and moisture absorption properties Julkapli and Bagheri Potassium permanganate Ethylene scavenger systems involve either inclusion of a small sachet containing an appropriate scavenger in the packaging or incorporation of an ethylene absorber in the film structure.
Antimicrobial Packaging Systems Antimicrobial food packaging presents a system designed to inhibit the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. MIC against both E. Effective inhibition of B. In vivo inhibition of the growth of Alternaria alternata from concentration of Higher total phenols and antioxidant activity in coated tomatoes. Reduction of Enterobacteriaceae up to 7. Coli, S. Restructured chicken steaks low sodium content Reduction in initial E. Enzymes and Bacteriocins Incorporation of proteins, particularly enzymes and bacteriocins, into food packaging to control spoilage caused by food pathogenic microorganisms has been an area of research for several decades Table 8.